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Late 19th-century Japanese Ukiyo-e woodblock print. Social attitudes towards abortion shifted in the context of a backlash against the women's rights movement, and as an expression of medical doctors desire to increase their power. Abortion had previously been widely practiced and legal under common law in early pregnancy until quickeningbut the English-speaking world passed laws against abortion at all stages of pregnancy.
In the United States, where physicians were the leading advocates of abortion criminalization laws, some of them argued that advances in medical knowledge showed that quickening was neither more nor less crucial in the process of gestation than any other step, and thus if one opposes abortion after quickening, one should oppose it before quickening as well.
For one, abortion providers tended to be untrained and not members of medical societies. In an age where the leading doctors in the nation were attempting to standardize the medical profession, these "irregulars" were considered a nuisance to public health.
Though the physicians' campaign against abortion began in the early s, little progress was made in the United States until after the Civil War. The Bill was proposed by the Lord Chief Justice of England and WalesEdward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough to clarify the law relating to abortion and was the first law to explicitly outlaw it.
The Act provided that it was an offence for any person to perform or cause an abortion. The punishment for performing or attempting to perform a post quickening abortion was the death penalty section 1 and otherwise was transportation for fourteen years section 2.
In 19th-century America, there was little regulation of abortion, in the tradition of English common law, pre quickening abortions were considered at most a misdemeanor. These cases proved difficult to prosecute as the testimony of the mother was usually the only means to determine when quickening had occurred.
It also eliminated the death penalty as a possible punishment. The latter half of the 19th century saw abortion become increasingly punished.
One writer justified this by claiming that the number of abortions among married women had increased markedly since During the s however abortion services were available in New York, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Louisville, Cleveland, Chicago and Indianapolis; with estimates of one abortion for every 4 live births.
Ina Connecticut law targeted apothecaries who sold poisons to women for purposes of abortion; and New York made post-quickening abortions a felony and pre-quickening abortions a misdemeanor eight years later. By nearly every state had anti-abortion laws,  but these were unevenly enforced, at best.
In the first half of the 19th century, abortion was viewed as the last resort for pregnant but unwed women.
But as writers began to write about abortion in terms of family planning for married women, the practice of abortion was reconceptualized as a logical solution to unwanted pregnancies resulting from ineffectual contraceptives.
From there was a steady decline in fertility in England, linked by some commentators not to a rise in the use of artificial contraception but to more traditional methods such as withdrawal and abstinence.
This was linked to changes in the perception of the relative costs of childrearing. Of course, women did find themselves with unwanted pregnancies. Abortifacients were discreetly advertised and there was a considerable body of folklore about methods of inducing miscarriages.
Amongst working-class women violent purgatives were popular, pennyroyalaloes and turpentine were all used. Other methods to induce miscarriage were very hot baths and ginextreme exertion, a controlled fall down a flight of stairs, or veterinary medicines.
So-called 'backstreet' abortionists were fairly common, although their bloody efforts could be fatal. Estimates of the number of illegal abortions performed in England varied widely: Soon, women began using diachylona substance with a high concentration of lead, as an abortifacient.
Ina woman confessed to having used diachylon to induce a miscarriage. Criminal investigation of an abortionist in Calgary, Alberta in revealed through chemical analysis that the concoction he had supplied to a man seeking an abortifacient contained Spanish fly.
Evelyn Fisher wrote of how women living in a mining town in Wales during the s used candles intended for Roman Catholic ceremonies to dilate the cervix in an effort to self-induce abortion. The text at the bottom notes that the pills "assist nature in her wondrous functions". Despite bans enacted on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, access to abortion continued, as the disguised advertisement of abortion services, abortion-inducing devices, and abortifacient medicines in the Victorian era would seem to suggest.Within India, where Hindus make up 80% of the population and Muslims make up 14%, violent outbreaks that began in February may already have taken thousands of lives.
India, which is mostly Hindu, and Pakistan, which is mostly Muslim, are once again on the brink of war over the disputed region of Kashmir. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDIA. By Tim Lambert. ANCIENT INDIA.
India in the Late 20th Century. In the s India fought two wars. In there was a conflict with China. There were clashes along the border between India and Tibet in the late s. A timeline of India. A brief history of Sri Lanka.
A brief history of Burma. A brief history. Apr 22, · Modern History Web Sites. PBS Online A great source for information on a myriad of historical events and personalities. PBS’s assorted and diverse web exhibits supplement specific individual television series and generally include a resume of each episode, interviews (often with sound bites), a timeline, a glossary, photos, and links to relevant sites.
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Harvard historian Niall Ferguson takes a comprehensive look at the totality of conflict from the turn of the century, up through to the end of the Cold War and turns some of the conventional wisdom on its head. Home» Copywriting» The conflict of women in 20th century india An introduction to the issue of slavery of african americans in the united states but History History of the Conflict Throughout history.
the island of Ireland has been regarded as a single national unit Prior to the Norman invasion from England in This is a list of conflicts in.