An introduction to the issue of bipolar disorder

If you believe that you can diminish the symptoms of bipolar disorder and recover, then you are much more likely to work hard to make changes which will result in a less intense symptoms profile, with a lifestyle conducive to good mental health. Many who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder have been "cured" and haven't had to resign themselves to a life of strong pharmaceutical drugs. As a result, it is important to always seek a second opinion. Moreover, refraining from alcohol and nicotine smoking consumption can also improve symptoms commonly associated with bipolar disorder Burgess.

An introduction to the issue of bipolar disorder

Abstract Objectives Despite recent advances in understanding the causes and treatment of nicotine dependence among individuals with psychiatric disorders, smoking among individuals with bipolar disorder BD has received little attention.

The goal of this review is to synthesize the literature on the epidemiology, consequences, and treatment of smoking and nicotine dependence among individuals with BD and to delineate a future research agenda. Articles were chosen by the authors on the basis of their relevance to the topic areas covered in this selective review.

Smoking cessation is achievable for individuals with BD, but challenges such as chronic mood dysregulation, high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, more severe nicotine dependence, and limited social support can make quitting more difficult.

Effective treatments for tobacco cessation are available, but no controlled trials in smokers with BD have been conducted. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is a prevalent and devastating addiction among individuals with BD and should be addressed by mental health providers.

Additional research on the mechanisms of, and optimal treatment for, smoking and nicotine dependence in this population is desperately needed. For example, a recent study examining mortality rates among consumers of public mental health services estimated that, on average, individuals with BD and other major mental illnesses die up to three decades earlier than their general population counterparts 3.

Functional Outcome in Bipolar Disorder: The Big Picture

Although some of these untimely deaths resulted from suicides or accidents, the most frequent causes of death were cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases—conditions for which tobacco use is a known cause of early mortality 4.

Despite the scope of the problem and the implications of tobacco use in BD, limited systematic research is available on this topic. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to synthesize the existing literature and delineate a research agenda, toward a goal of improving knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of, and treatment for, nicotine dependence in individuals with BD.

Because smoking is the primary means by which tobacco is consumed and previous research on tobacco use among individuals with BD has focused almost exclusively on smoking, we restricted our review to cigarette smoking.

An introduction to the issue of bipolar disorder

In the sections that follow, we: Methodology of the Literature Search For this selective review, we conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles using the following search strategy: This search yielded hits, the majority of which were not relevant to this review.

Of the identified articles that were relevant and that we selected for inclusion, only 13 were empirical studies in which cigarette smoking among individuals with BD was the primary focus 125 — Of note, 12 of these 13 studies were published aftersuggesting that attention to the relationship between smoking and BD may be increasing.

Although some of this variability can be attributed to small sample sizes and non-representative clinical samples, even population-based prevalence studies have produced disparate findings.

Despite this variability in prevalence estimates, controlled population-based 161920 and clinical studies 7 — 921 conducted in the U.

Epidemiologic data also suggest that the prevalence of smoking in BD is high relative to other Axis I psychiatric disorders. However, the reliability of comparisons among the diagnostic groups in the NCS study are questionable due to the relatively small sample size within groups.

Although the NHIS data set is not without limitations i. Nonetheless, it appears that BD is among the Axis I psychiatric disorders with the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. The high prevalence rates of smoking among individuals with BD appear to be attributable to both increased likelihood of initiating smoking and decreased likelihood of successfully quitting.

In terms of initiation, in the only controlled study of tobacco use in adolescents with BD, Wilens and colleagues 10 reported that adolescents with BD are more likely to initiate smoking than age-matched peers without psychiatric disorders i.

Cross-sectional and retrospective data from several studies also indicate that individuals with BD are more likely than individuals in the general population to be heavy smokers 78 and to be nicotine dependent 20which can make cessation more challenging.Readable and up to date information on bipolar disorder (manic depression) from The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Introduction. This leaflet is for anyone who wants to know more about bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar affective disorder or manic depression).

You increasingly lose touch with day-to-day issues – and with. Although Bipolar disorder is known to have almost equal prevalence rates in both males and females, both the course and the expression of the disorder seem to be different across the two genders.

Is there some sort of overlap between OCD and bipolar disorder?

What is GABA?

If so, how can one treat the OCD without worsening the bipolar? On the issue of overlap, a search of PubMed yields many articles describing a clear connection between the two, from genetics to prevalence to clinical occurrence.

The Main Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder Mania and Hypomania. There are two kinds of mania: full blown mania and hypomania. A bipolar disorder diagnosis is based on the kind of mania a person has. Welcome to the International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience.

Our Open Access journal presents the highest quality papers in the field of emergency mental health, including original research, case studies, and scholarly reviews. Cigarette smoking is significantly more prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) than among individuals without the disorder (1,2) and has dire consequences.

Bipolar disorder (manic depression)