I am a recognized authority in American history, particularly concerning the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Eras. I personally own a vast collection of thousands of documents of American history predatingincluding handwritten works of the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. As a result of my expertise, I work as a consultant to national history textbook publishers and have been appointed by the State Boards of Education in States such as California and Texas to help write the American history and government standards for students in those States. I have also written and published numbers of books and articles on American history and its related issues.
References and Further Reading 1. We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts.
When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy.
It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology. Two issues, though, are prominent: Objectivism and Relativism Metaphysics is the study of the kinds of things that exist in the universe. Some things in the universe are made of physical stuff, such as rocks; and perhaps other things are nonphysical in nature, such as thoughts, spirits, and gods.
The metaphysical component of metaethics involves discovering specifically whether moral values are eternal truths that exist in a spirit-like realm, or simply human conventions. There are two general directions that discussions of this topic take, one other-worldly and one this-worldly.
Proponents of the other-worldly view typically hold that moral values are objective in the sense that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective human conventions. They also hold that they are absolute, or eternal, in that they never change, and also that they are universal insofar as they apply to all rational creatures around the world and throughout time.
The most dramatic example of this view is Platowho was inspired by the field of mathematics. Humans do not invent numbers, and humans cannot alter them. Plato explained the eternal character of mathematics by stating that they are abstract entities that exist in a spirit-like realm.
He noted that moral values also are absolute truths and thus are also abstract, spirit-like entities.
In this sense, for Plato, moral values are spiritual objects. Medieval philosophers commonly grouped all moral principles together under the heading of "eternal law" which were also frequently seen as spirit-like objects.
In either case, though, they exist in a spirit-like realm. Sometimes called voluntarism or divine command theorythis view was inspired by the notion of an all-powerful God who is in control of everything. God simply wills things, and they become reality.
He wills the physical world into existence, he wills human life into existence and, similarly, he wills all moral values into existence. God informs humans of these commands by implanting us with moral intuitions or revealing these commands in scripture.
The second and more this-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality follows in the skeptical philosophical tradition, such as that articulated by Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and denies the objective status of moral values. Technically, skeptics did not reject moral values themselves, but only denied that values exist as spirit-like objects, or as divine commands in the mind of God.
Moral values, they argued, are strictly human inventions, a position that has since been called moral relativism. There are two distinct forms of moral relativism. The first is individual relativism, which holds that individual people create their own moral standards.
Friedrich Nietzsche, for example, argued that the superhuman creates his or her morality distinct from and in reaction to the slave-like value system of the masses.
In addition to espousing skepticism and relativism, this-worldly approaches to the metaphysical status of morality deny the absolute and universal nature of morality and hold instead that moral values in fact change from society to society throughout time and throughout the world. They frequently attempt to defend their position by citing examples of values that differ dramatically from one culture to another, such as attitudes about polygamy, homosexuality and human sacrifice.
Psychological Issues in Metaethics A second area of metaethics involves the psychological basis of our moral judgments and conduct, particularly understanding what motivates us to be moral.
We might explore this subject by asking the simple question, "Why be moral?Home > Opinions > Society > Is the death penalty moral? Add a New Topic. Is the death penalty moral? An eye for an eye has been around since biblical times. So, is capital punishment not murder?
Yes, it is. It is the deliberate taking of a human life by another. Basically, our courts are dissuading murder by murdering. That does not. The Ethics and Morality of the Ancient Egyptians by Jimmy Dunn writing as John Warren Ma'at, kneeling and with wings spread. what is basically ethical and moral sometimes seems relatively clear, such as not cheating or stealing, working hard to earn a living, etc., but even today in some societies, that is not always so obvious.
Identify the key ethical arguments for and against capital punishment. There is a common logical fallacy that the crime statistics reflect in some way the morality of the society. STOP HERE AND THINK TWICE!
The crime statistics reflect first to which extent the human. Capital Punishment Is A Necessary Tool For Society - The belief external influences lead to a criminal’s crime lead to the belief, rather than executing criminals “one might design institutions to disinfect the criminal, to restore him to moral health” (Garnett and Nelson).
Ethics Of The Death Penalty Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this.
|Ethical Monotheism||References and Further Reading 1.|
Disclaimer: and cultures. This essay will assess the ethical issues associated with the death penalty from the views of ancient thinkers, as well as modern principles. many laws were passed exempting crimes from capital punishment. Capital punishments were abolished.