Beyond Black and White Content Warning: I write for an online magazine called Everyday Feminism.
A Multidisciplinary Bibliography, an extensive bibliography of black American Womanism feminism and black women thought from across the disciplines.
These African American women did not refer to themselves as feminists, however, their beliefs and activism ignited a tradition of anti-racist and anti-sexist political movement and thought which now defines black American feminism. Many black American women, inspired by these nineteenth century trailblazers have continued over the years to work toward the eradication of race and gender inequality, among other systems of oppression, which have historically subjugated black American women.
Contemporary black American feminists have identified the central themes in black feminism as evidenced in over a century of struggle in the U.
As black women have become cognizant of the multiple systemic forces of oppression, they have pursued collective actions for social change, transforming society and themselves through their own agency and self-determination. Citations will be added for the sections that I have new material for.
The entire body of black American feminist writings is not cited here, nor do I anticipate being able to identify all of the new literature as it is published.
As a result, I do welcome input from site visitors. If one is aware of a book, a chapter, an article or Web site that should be included in the bibliography, please fill out the online form and I will take your suggestion into consideration.
Citations date back to the nineteenth century to the present, with the majority of references representing the very influential contemporary black feminist thought that emerged in the the s and continues today. The bibliography is primarily arranged by discipline and subject.
There are 4 broad discipline based section headings: Special Issues; and Web Sites. Under the disciplines, citations are arranged under narrower subject headings. When I began compiling the bibliography most of the scholarship related to black lesbian feminists was liteary.
Black American Feminism Web site, where one will find an extensive bibliography of Black American Feminist writings from across the disciplines, dating back to the nineteenth century when African American women like Maria Stewart, Anna Julia Cooper and Sojourner Truth challenged the conventions and mores of their era to speak publicly . But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States The Black Feminist Movement grew out of, and in response to, the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement. “Womanism says that our histories are a bit different, white women and black women have never been on the same footing, so we need to adopt a new word that really values our race, our class and.
Thus, Lesbian Subjectivities was placed, and still resides, in the Arts and Humanities section. It no longer comfortably fits there.
Many of the sources now come from the social sciences. For interdiscipinary research interests, one should consult multiple and related subject headings and formats. Many sources appear in various books and journals. Reprints that I have knowledge of are noted so that researchers have options when trying to locate materials.
The citations come from professional, scholarly, popular, mainstream and alternative magazines, journals, newspapers, and books. Many of the references are by self-defined black feminists and written about the black American female experience. However, the bibliography is not limited to such materials.
Included are works which do not explicitly propose to take a black feminist stance, but manifest black feminist thinking by employing at least a race and gender analysis.
Some sources are more descriptive than analytical. The one theme evident througout all of the works is the desire for social change. The emphasis of the bibliography is on Black feminist traditions in the United States - feminism, womanism, and Africana womanism.
Furthermore, black women in other parts of the world, under different social, economic and political systems, bring their distinct histories, issues, cultures and experiences to feminist movement and subjectivity 4.
While some commonalties exist, some do not. Nonetheless, some black feminists in the U. These theorists have looked to the Diaspora as a source of empowerment and to interpret the black female experience in the United States. These and similar works are included in the bibliography.
Black American feminists, as this bibliography illustrates, represent a diversity of viewpoints and activities. Many are and have been integrationist, nationalist, clubwomen, reformists, communists, slaves, men, nurses, teachers, academics, artists, theologians and more, hence "black American feminisms".She sees womanism as a theory/movement for the survival of the black race; a theory that takes into consideration the experiences of black women, black culture, black myths, spiritual life, and orality.
Womanism or Black Feminism; Womanism or Black Feminism. 11 November Literature; Womanism provides a space for Black women and women of color to create a dialogue in a non threatening environment.
According to Katie Cannon, womanism is always in the making – it is not a closed fixed system of ideas but one that continually evolves. “Womanism says that our histories are a bit different, white women and black women have never been on the same footing, so we need to adopt a new word that really values our race, our class and.
Womanist theology, like womanism in general, also looks at the ways in which black women are portrayed in inadequate or biased ways in the works of white women and black men. Quotes About Womanism Alice Walker: .
Womanism like black feminism, provides a space for black women and women of color to create dialogues in a non threatening environment.
Womanism and Black Feminism: In scholarly academia, there exists discussing approaches about whether women and feminism should be assessed as separate or intrinsically linked elements (Alexander-Floyd and. But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States The Black Feminist Movement grew out of, and in response to, the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement.